What are Programming Languages?
Programming Languages are the set of Instruction which are used to produce various kind of output. Programs are written with some specific algorithms with different tasks. The description of programming languages is usually split into the two components of Syntax (form) and semantics (meaning).
There are 3 levels of Programming Languages:
- Machine Languages.
- Assembly Languages.
- High Level Languages.
** Machine language: Machine language are called as “native tongue” of the computer. These languages are closer to the hardware itself. A machine language program is made up of series of binary patterns, which represents simple operations that can be done by the computer. Machine languages are also known as low-level languages.
Machine languages are written in Binary Formats like 0110101001110.
**Assembly Language: Assembly language makes an effort to make programming easier for human. In this, the Machine language instruction sets are converted into simple pneumonic abbreviations. It uses assembler to convert each abbreviations into machine language and then execute the whole code.
Assembly Languages uses short abbreviations like for Addition we can write ADD A+B
**High Level Language: High-level languages are more English like programming languages those programming languages are easier to understand for the programmers. High Level languages also require translation to machine language before executing the program. This translation is done either by the compiler or by the interpreter.
We are here going to see a list of the high level programming languages according to their release dates.
FORTRAN is a general-purpose programming language originally developed by IBM in the 1950s. FORTRAN was especially made for the scientific and engineering applications.
Lisp is a language of fully parenthesized prefix notation. Lisp is the second oldest high-level-programming language. Lisp is also using now a days. From early days, Lisp has many dialects like Closure, Common Lisp and Scheme. It was created as a practical mathematical notation for computer programs.
COBOL is for “common business oriented language”. It is a compiled language, which uses basic structures of English-like computer programming language, which was designed for business uses. COBOL was designed by CODASYL. Grace Hopper has also contributed in this programming language in early stage of this programming language.
CPL (1963) Forerunner to C Language
CPL is a multi-paradigm programming language. It is an early ancestor of the great C programming language. CPL was developed initially at University of Cambridge followed by the University of London. When CPL was developing at University of Cambridge then it was known as Cambridge Programming Language but after completion later known as “Combined Programming Language”.
BCPL (1967) Forerunner to C Language
Basic combined Programming Language is a structured programming language as well as procedural and imperative. BCPL was intended to writing compilers for other languages. BCPL is no longer in use.
C is an early programming language for the systems which was developed by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson. This programming language was developed at Bell Labs in between 1969 and 1973.
SQL is a structured Query Language, which is used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system RDBMS. SQL is originally based on relational algebra and tuple relational calculus.
C ++ (1980)
C ++ is a general-purpose programming language. It has imperative, object-oriented. C ++ is standardized by the international Organisation for Standardization (ISO), with the latest standard version ratified and published by ISO.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 & Perl 6. Perl was developed by Larry Wall in 1987. It was first general purpose Unix Scripting Language for easier report processing. It has borrowed features from languages like C, shell script, AWK and sed.
Python is an interpreted, high-level, programming language. Python is created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991. Python interpreters are available for many operating systems. It support automatic memory management, imperative, functional as well as procedural and it has a large library.
Ruby is dynamic, interpreted, object-oriented, reflective, general-purpose programming language. Perl, Lisp and some more languages, influenced ruby.
Java is a general-purpose computer programming language and Java is specially designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It let developers to “write once, run anywhere”.
PHP : Hypertext pre-processor. It is a server side scripting language designed for web development. PHP design by Rasmus Lerdorf. PHP code can be embedded into HTML code, and it can be used in combination with various web template systems and web frameworks.
Microsoft developed it within its .NET initiative. Anders Hejlsberg and its development team designed C #. Mads Torgersen is currently leading this team.
Go was designed at Google by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike and Ken Thompson. It is similar to C with some added benefits.
Dart is a general-purpose programming language which was originally developed by Google and then approved as a standard by Ecma. Dart is also an object-oriented, class-defined, garbage-collected language. Dart is used for building Web, Server, Desktop and Mobile applications.
Kotlin was designed to interoperate fully with java. Kotlin integrates with JVM. Google officially supports Kotlin language for mobile development on Android.
Swift is a general-purpose programming language. Apple developed Swift for building native applications for the Apple all the accessories like mobile, laptops, watches, etc. It uses Objective C runtime library, which allows C, C++ and Swift code to run within one program.
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